Dental surgery (oral surgery, oral medicine)
Surgery of the teeth and jaw bones.
Dental surgery is a medical procedure that involves artificially modifying dentition. This dental specialty focuses on the diagnosis and surgical and adjunctive treatment of diseases, injuries and defects related to the functional and esthatic aspects of the face, mouth, teeth and jaws (maxillofacial area).
The most recognized form of oral surgery is tooth extraction. Reasons:
• Impacted or partially erupted wisdom teeth
• Teeth beyond repair either from tooth decay, root fracture, or trauma
• Primary teeth that have failed to fall out, preventing the eruption of permanent teeth
• Orthodontic treatment plans may require the removal of some teeth to achieve the optimum result
Wisdom teeth or third molars, are the last set of teeth to develop. Sometimes these teeth emerge from the gum line and the jaw is large enough to allow room for them, but most of the time, this is not the case. More often, one or more of these third molars fails to emerge in proper alignment or fails to fully emerge through the gum line and becomes entrapped or "impacted" between the jawbone and the gum tissue. Impacted wisdom teeth can result in swelling, pain, and infection of the gum tissue surrounding the wisdom teeth. In addition, impacted wisdom teeth can cause permanent damage to nearby teeth, gums, and bone and can sometimes lead to the formation of cysts or tumors that can destroy sections of the jaw. Therefore, dentists recommend people with impacted wisdom teeth have them surgically removed.
It's not just wisdom teeth that sometimes become impacted and need to be removed. Other teeth, such as the cuspids and the bicuspids can become impacted and can cause the same types of problems described with impacted wisdom teeth.
Dental implants are an option for tooth loss due to an accident or infection or as an alternative to bridges and dentures. The implants are tooth root substitutes that are surgically anchored in place in the jawbone and act to stabilize the artificial teeth to which they are attached. Suitable candidates for dental implants need to have an adequate bone level and density, must not be prone to infection, and must be willing to maintain good oral hygiene practices.
Bone graft - why consider bone grafting
Most dental bone grafting procedures are done to restore your bone to its previous form following tooth loss, gum disease, or trauma. Bone grafting may also be used to maintain bone structure after tooth extraction.
Restoring and maintaining facial bone structure is important for several reasons. Many dental procedures, such as dental implant placement, require that the bone be as close to its original dimension and position as possible for optimal results. Also, the jaw and other facial bones support the skin and muscle that are responsible for our outward cosmetic appearance. Without the support of the underlying bone, our faces can look prematurely aged.
Unequal jaw growth, improve fit of dentures, Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders